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  Conjugating of Verbs

 

Today I will show you how to conjugate verbs. It is fairly simple.

 

The first and most important thing to remember about the japanese language is that verbs are the most impotant part. Sometimes all that needs to be said is the verb. There are 3 kinds of verbs in the language. All of these have a pattern that needs to be followed. But don't worry. It's easy. Most verbs in Japanese are Godan verbs. I only know of one exception to the rule that all of the Godan verbs follow.

Godan means five levels or steps. This is because there are five bases to these verbs. But there is also the "te" and "ta" bases that are used with all verbs.

 

Here is how to conjugate the word aruku(walk).

Base 1 aruka

Base 2 aruki

Base 3 aruku

Base 4 aruke

Base 5 arukou

Base te aruite

Base ta aruita

 

Base 1 is never used alone but becomes a negative by adding -nai. But if the word ends in a u with a vowel before it then the end is -wa.

Base 2 is usually a noun and mostly used in polite form.

Base 3 the main form and is used in the present future tense.

Base 4 is the "if verb" by adding -ba. (ex. arukeba -> "if he'd would only walk")

Base 5 is the "let's verb". It is said by itself. (ex. arukou -> "Let's walk".)

Base te is the regular command by itself. It should only be used with close friends and family. It is the polite command when kudasai is added.

Base ta Is usually used as a plain form in past tense

 

*There is one thing that you'll need to learn in order to conjugate the "te" and "ta" forms correctly, however. Basically, for all Godan verbs ending in u, tsu, or ru; the u, tsu, or ru becomes tte in the "te" form and tta in the "ta" form. (ex. katsu (to win) -> katte (Win!), katta (We won!))

For all Godan verbs ending in bu, mu, or nu; the bu, mu, or nu becomes nde in the "te" form and nda in the "ta" form. (ex. yomu (to read) -> yonde (Read it.), yonda (I read it.))

For all Godan verbs ending in ã (ku), the ã (ku) becomes ite in the "te" form and ita in the "ta" form. (ex. aruku (to walk) -> aruite (Walk!), aruita (I walked here.)) (The only exception I know of is for iku (to go) which becomes itte/itta. I have no idea why.)

For all Godan verbs ending in gu, the gu becomes ide in the "te" form and ida in the "ta" form. (ex. oyogu (to swim) -> oyoide (Swim!), oyoida (I swam.))

For all Godan verbs ending in su, the su becomes shite in the "te" form and shita in the "ta" form. (ex. hanasu (to talk) -> hanashite (Say something!), hanashita (I talked to him).*

 

kiku to ask

hanasu to speak

shinu to die

katsu to win

nomu to drink

oyugu to swim

kesu to erase or turn off

watariau to argue

hikiokosu to cause

kau to buy

sabaku to judge

yomu to read

wakachiau to share

utau to sing

matsu to wait

isogu to hurry

yuu to say

kaku to write

arau to wash

nuguu to wipe

mosu to burn

urayamu to envy

 

Think that's enough for now? More will be added in later lessons or edited into this one later.

 

Notice how none of these verbs ended in "iru" or "eru". This is because most verbs that end in this way are Ichidan verbs. The second type of verb is conjugated differently than Godan verbs. Here is an explanation of how they conjugate.

 

Neru the regular form of this word. It means to sleep.

Base 1 ne

Base 2 ne

Base 3 neru

Base 4 nere

Base 5 neyou

Base te nete

Base ta neta

 

Base 1 and 2 are the same. They can be made negative by adding -nai. They are the polite form as well. Or add -ro to the end to make it a rude command.

Base 3 is the present/future tense of the verb. Same as Godan.

Base 4 can only be used by itself by adding -ba at the end. It can not be used alone as the Godan form can.

Base 5 Is the "let's" form. same as Godan.

Base te and ta are alot easier then they were in Godan. Alle you need to do is take off the ru for and add te or ta. They are used the same way Godan verbs are.

 

Now for a list of Ichidan verbs.

Miru to see

hukeru to age

taberu to eat

kuchiru to rot

Neru to sleep

mazeru to mix

kuchidukeru to kiss

yuderu to draw

moeru to burn

wabiru to worry

tazuneru to visit

tsuneru to pinch

Kiru to wear or put on

dekiru can do

oboeru to remember

 

The last type of verbs are irregular verbs. there are only two of them so it should be easy.

 

The first is suru(to do).

Base 1 shi

Base 2 shi

Base 3 suru

Base 4 sure

Base 5 shiyou

te shite

ta shita

 

The functions are the same ss Godan except Bas4 4 is only the if verb and the rude command is shiro. The forms of these verbs can be added to many nouns to make verbs.

 

The second is kuru(to come).

Base 1 ko

Base 2 ki

Base 3 kuru

Base 4 kure

Base 5 koyou

te kite

ta kita

 

Same as Godan except for Base 4 which is only the if verb

and the rude command koi should only be used on animals.

 

Some exceptions to these rules are the words

hashiru to run

iru to need

hairu to enter

shiru to know

kiru to cut

kaeru to return

suberu to slip or slide

keru to kick

 

These appear to be Ichidan verbs but are actually Godan. I don't know why. They just are.

 

Ja ne

(see you later)

 


 
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